Marine soils are the soil that is deposited deep below the sea. The materials that are carried along the sea are eroded by tidal waves and settled down. The fragments deposited below the sea bed are known as marine soils. Alluvial soils are the soil deposited in...

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## Answer for How do I design a pile foundation?

The pile foundations can be designed as the deep foundations. The piles, in general, can be designed as Friction Piles or Rock socketed or end-bearing piles. There are other several types of piles based on materials, type of construction, etc. However, the above two...

## Answer for What is a mobilized shear strength?

When you apply a load on any structure, stress will develop. The stress would increase as you increase the applied load until it reaches the maximum possible value at which the material will fail. This self-adjusting phenomenon is called the mobilization of shear...

## Answer for What is the basis behind the assumption that soil is semi-infinite in soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering?

The semi-infinite assumption is only applicable to a particular set of problems. Forget about soil, suppose you have applied a vertical load on a solid block. Depending upon its own stiffness the there will be a vertical deformation as well as a horizontal expansion...

## Answer for What is the application of the shrinkage limit of a soil?

Definition of Shrinkage Limit: Shrinkage limit of soil is a moisture content beyond which a decrease in moisture content does not cause any further decrease in the volume of soil. It is determined by Atterberg's Limit Test. Thus it shows the shrinking property of...

## Answer for How do I calculate the maximum shear stress in the limit state method?

Shear stress: A form of stress that acts parallel to the surface (cross-section) which has a cutting thrust in nature. It can be calculated using the following formula. Maximum principal stress (σmax) Minimum principal stress (σmin) Principal angle (θp) Maximum shear...

## Answer for What is a Tunnel ? What are the types of Tunnel?

The tunnel is a horizontally excavated way of road/rail communication. It is constructed in a step-by-step procedure so that it does not collapse onto itself. As you know that soil is very weak in tension. So any excavation without proper structural reinforcement or...

## Answer for What is negative skin friction? When does it happen?

Negative Skin friction is a type of skin friction that happens in a pile foundation. A deep foundation usually consists of piles (either bored or cast-in-situ). Each pile carries the load from super-structure by transferring the load through (1) Skin-friction and (2)...

## Answer for What is a constitutive model of soil ?

A constitutive model of soil is the mathematical description of soil behavior in the elastic and plastic regime. It can be a strain rate dependent as well. A constitutive model is a fundamental notion for any higher-order numerical analysis like the Finite Element...

## Answer for What is confining stress ? How does it affect the stiffness of soil?

Confining stress is the lateral or mean stress in the soil. This stress, as the name implies, confines the movement of soil. So soil stiffness increases as it cannot deform the way it should. There are a few formulae for the calculation of the stiffness modulus of...